What is hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus.  When first infected, a person can develop an “acute” infection, which can range in severity from a very mild illness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition requiring hospitalization. Acute hepatitis B refers to the first 6 months after someone is infected with the hepatitis B virus.  Some people are able to fight the infection and clear the virus.  For others, the infection remains and is “chronic,” or lifelong. Chronic hepatitis B refers to the infection that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Over time, the infection can cause serious health problems.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis B?

Infants and young children usually show no symptoms. In about 7 out of 10 older children and adults, short-term hepatitis B causes the following:

• Loss of appetite (not wanting to eat)

• Fever

• Tiredness

• Pain in muscles, joints, and stomach

• Nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting

• Dark urine

• Yellow skin and eyes

Symptoms of short-term illness usually appear 3 or 4 months after infection.

How serious is hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B can be very serious. Most people with short-term hepatitis B may feel sick for a few weeks to a several months. Some people get over the illness. For other people, the virus stays in their body for a life time. People with lifelong hepatitis B usually don’t have symptoms, but the virus causes liver damage over time. For these people, there is no cure for the infection but treatment can help prevent serious problems. Each year, 3,000 to 5,000 people die from liver damage or liver cancer caused by hepatitis B.

How does hepatitis B spread?

Hepatitis B spreads through blood or other body fluids that contain small amounts of blood of an infected person. People can spread the virus even when they have no symptoms. Babies and children can get hepatitis B in the following ways:

• At birth from their infected mother.

• From bites from an infected person.

• By touching open cuts or sores of an infected person.

• Through sharing toothbrushes or other personal items used by an infected person.

• From food that was chewed (for a baby) by an infected person.

• From ear piercing needles that were not cleaned well.

The virus can live on objects for 7 days or more. Even if you don’t see any blood, there could be virus on an object.

A shot in the first days of life?

It’s hard to imagine putting your newborn through the pain of a shot. But a little stick in the first day of life is an important first step to protecting your baby against a deadly disease. All babies should get the first shot of hepatitis B vaccine before they leave the hospital. This shot acts as a safety net, reducing the risk of getting the disease from moms or family members who may not know they are infected with hepatitis B. And when a mom has hepatitis B, the vaccine has the best chance of protecting against hepatitis B, but the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) works best when given within the first 12 hours of life. HBIG is a medicine that gives a baby’s body a “boost” or extra help to fight the virus as soon as he or she is born.

The HBIG shot is only given to babies of mothers who have hepatitis B.

What is the hepatitis B vaccine?

The hepatitis B vaccine protects against getting hepatitis B. It is a copy of only one small part of the virus. The vaccine cannot give the infection. The hepatitis B vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the virus. Almost all children (95 children out of 100) who get three doses of the vaccine will be protected from hepatitis B.

When should my child get the hepatitis B vaccine?

Children need three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine (depending on the brand of vaccine used) at the following ages for best protection:

• The first dose at birth (within 12 hours if the mother has hepatitis B infection);

• A second dose at 1 months; and

• A third dose at 6 months of age.

Some children may need a forth dose.  There are many other schedules to give Hep B vaccine. Your doctor would best decide it for you. Older children who did not get the vaccine as a baby should get it as soon as possible.

Why should my child get the hepatitis B vaccine?

Getting your child the hepatitis B vaccine protects him against serious disease. Of the more than 1 million people living with life-long hepatitis B, most got the virus as a child. When infants and young children are infected with hepatitis B, they have a 90% chance of developing a life-long, chronic infection. One out of 4 of these children will have serious liver disease as an adult, including cancer. Children and adults with life-long hepatitis B can pass on the virus to other people.

If my child does not get the hepatitis B vaccine, will he get the disease?

Children who do not get the vaccine for hepatitis B are at risk for infection. More than 1 million people in the U.S. have life-long hepatitis B. Most don’t know it.  Therefore, an unvaccinated child may be at risk of getting the disease from someone who has the virus and doesn’t even know it.

Is the hepatitis B vaccine safe?

The hepatitis B vaccine is very safe, and it is effective at preventing hepatitis B. Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. But no serious side effects are known to be caused by the hepatitis B vaccine. Most people who get the hepatitis B vaccine will have no side effects at all. Those that do occur are very mild, such as a low fever (less than 101 degrees) or a sore arm from the shot.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

What is Hib disease?

Hib disease is a serious illness caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Type b. Babies and children younger than 5 years old are most at risk for Hib disease. It can cause lifelong disability and be deadly. The Hib vaccine prevents Hib disease.

What are the symptoms of Hib disease?

Hib disease causes different symptoms depending on which part of the body it affects.

The most common type of Hib disease is meningitis. This is an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord. It causes the following:

• Fever and headache

• Confusion

• Stiff neck

• Pain when looking into bright lights

In babies, meningitis may cause poor eating and drinking, low alertness, and vomiting.

Hib disease can also cause the following:

• Throat swelling that makes it hard to breathe

• Joint infection

• Skin infection

• Pneumonia (lung infection)

• Bone infection

How serious is Hib disease?

Hib disease is very dangerous. Most children with Hib disease need care in the hospital. Even with treatment, as many as 1 out of 20 children with Hib meningitis dies. As many as 1 out of 5 children who survive Hib meningitis will have brain damage or become deaf.

How does Hib disease spread?

Hib spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Usually, the Hib bacteria stay in a person’s nose and throat and do not cause illness. But if the bacteria spread into the lungs or blood, the person will get very sick. Spread of Hib is common among family members and in child care centres.

What is the Hib vaccine?

The Hib vaccine is a shot that protects against Hib disease. The vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the bacteria. Almost all children (at least 95 children out of 100) who get all doses of the vaccine will be protected from Hib disease.

Why should my child get the Hib vaccine?

Getting your child the Hib vaccine protects him against serious, and even deadly, illness. It is rare for a child who has had the Hib vaccine to get Hib disease.

When should my child get the Hib vaccine?

Children should get three or four doses of the Hib vaccine at the following ages for best protection:

• One dose at 1.5 months;

• A second dose at 2.5 months;

• Third dose at 3.5 months; and

• A final dose at 18 months of age.

It is safe to get the Hib vaccine at the same time as other vaccines, even for babies.

Is the Hib vaccine safe?

The Hib vaccine is very safe, and it is effective at preventing Hib disease. Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. But severe side effects from the Hib vaccine are very rare.

If my child does not get the Hib vaccine, will he get the Hib disease?

Without the vaccine, your child has a much greater chance of getting Hib disease. Most cases of Hib disease today are in children who have not had the Hib vaccine. Before the Hib vaccine, Hib disease was the most common cause of meningitis in children younger than 5 years. About 20,000 children got severe Hib disease each year, and about 1,000 died. Today, with the vaccine, cases of severe Hib disease have dropped by more than 99%. Many more children would get sick from Hib if people stopped vaccinating. Now a days there are vaccine with all above 5 disease protecton in one dose. Means only one jab,  but protection for 5 diseases.

All information compiled by Dr. Poonam Sambhaji.